Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category
Lately, there have been some new API’s and tools for creating new visualizations as well as creating visualizations more easily. Some of these tools/api’s are not-so-new (but are new to me). Readers of this blog already know my inclination to Many Eyes to which I have referred to before.
Google Visualization API – Is an excellent Visualization API released by Google to allow the creation of new visualizations from multiple data streams. Users are encouraged to not only use pre-built visualizations but are also able to create and share their new visualizations for other users. Their Gadget gallery has some excellent examples.
Processing – Processing is an open source programming language that is increasingly being used for creating captivating visualizations that not only provide insight but as serving as art pieces. It has been used widely in exhibitions as well as talks. A visualization created by processing is called a Sketch. A collection of such sketches can be found at the gallery on the processing website. There is also another movement to share processing sketches at OpenProcessing which as described by the author “is a ‘flickr’ish place for processing community to share their sketches, comment on each other’s pieces, etc..” It is also being used as one of the tools to teach a new course at Harvard by Hanspeter Pfister. More details at http://www.seas.harvard.edu/courses/cs171/
Flare – is a flash based version of the Prefuse toolkit (authored primarily by Jeff Heer and others), which is an excellent visualization toolkit. Prefuse has been used very widely in numerous projects and I anticipate the same for Flare. As per the website, Flare is already being used in Many Eyes. Checkout some demos on their website.
If you know of any more interesting API’s tools that allow the creation of new/cool visualizations, please feel free to post here in the comments.
Non-photorealistic rendering emerged out of the need for researchers to render a scene in styles other than photorealistic. Researchers have published their excellent work on topics as diverse as painterly rendering, charcoal rendering, pen-and-ink rendering, blueprint rendering and sketch drawing.
Painterly rendering as mentioned above is a type of non-photorealistic rendering. It deals with generating an image that mimics a painter’s attempt at generating a painting of a particular scene. This topic has received immense attention due to its “coolness factor” as well as complexity. The top image depicts a photograph which is used as input to the algorithm that generates the painterly rendering shown below the photograph. Image credits: Aaron Hertzmann, ‘Painterly Rendering with Curved Brush Strokes of Multiple Sizes’, Siggraph ’98.
Here is a small (definitely incomplete) list of papers that attempt to generate painterly rendered outputs based on various inputs (scenes, photographs and virtual environments).
- Painterly Rendering with Curved Brush Strokes of Multiple Sizes
A. Hertzmann. SIGGRAPH 98 Conference Proceedings. pp. 453-460. Orlando, Florida. July, 1998.
- Peter Litwinowicz, Processing images and video for an impressionist effect, Proceedings of the 24th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, p.407-414, August 1997
- Steve Strassmann, Hairy brushes, ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics, v.20 n.4, p.225-232, Aug. 1986
- Barbara J. Meier, Painterly rendering for animation, Proceedings of the 23rd annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, p.477-484, August 1996
- Cassidy J. Curtis , Sean E. Anderson , Joshua E. Seims , Kurt W. Fleischer , David H. Salesin, Computer-generated watercolor, Proceedings of the 24th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, p.421-430, August 1997
- Maria Shugrina , Margrit Betke , John Collomosse, Empathic painting: interactive stylization through observed emotional state, Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on Non-photorealistic animation and rendering, June 05-07, 2006, Annecy, France
- Paul Haeberli, Paint by numbers: abstract image representations, Proceedings of the 17th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, p.207-214, September 1990, Dallas, TX, USA
- James Hays , Irfan Essa, Image and video based painterly animation, Proceedings of the 3rd international symposium on Non-photorealistic animation and rendering, June 07-09, 2004, Annecy, France
- Aaron Hertzmann, Fast paint texture, Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium on Non-photorealistic animation and rendering, June 03-05, 2002, Annecy, France
- Doug DeCarlo , Anthony Santella, Stylization and abstraction of photographs, Proceedings of the 29th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, July 23-26, 2002, San Antonio, Texas
This list can go on forever, but you get the idea.
After that introduction of painterly rendering, I can now discuss the application of the rich medium of paintings in the field of visualization. In the field of visualization, attributes such as brush size, color, orientation, texture and so on can be used for visualizing all the multiple attributes that comprise a dataset.
Painterly visualization is an interesting approach to visualizing scientific data. Researchers not only end up producing aesthetically pleasing images but also generate visualizations that domain experts can better use to visualize and understand their data.
Prof. Chris Healey from NCSU has been one of the primary researchers using the painterly rendering paradigm to visualize weather and other multi-attribute datasets. Some other work has emerged from the labs of Prof. David Laidlaw at Brown, Prof. Victoria Interrante at UMN.
Here are some of their papers and some other related papers. The beautiful painterly visualizations generated not only make it enjoyable but the techniques and the applications sure make for extremely interesting reading.
- Tateosian, L. G., Healey, C. G., and Enns, J. T. “Engaging Viewers Through Nonphotorealistic Visualizations.” To appear in Fifth International Symposium on Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering (San Diego, California, 2007).
- Healey, C. G and Enns, J. T. “Perception and Painting: A Search for Effective, Engaging Visualizations.” IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications (Visualization Viewpoints) 22, 2, (2002), 10-15.
- P. Coleman Saunders, Victoria Interrante and Sean C. Garrick (2005) “Pointillist and Glyph-Based Visualization of Nanoparticles in Formation“,, Joint Eurographics/IEEE-VGTC Symposium on Visualization”, pp. 169-176.
- Healey, C. G., Enns, J. T., Tateosian, L. G., and Remple, M. “Perceptually-Based Brush Strokes for Nonphotorealistic Visualization.” ACM Transactions on Graphics 23, 1, (2004), 64-96.
- Michael Kirby, Daniel Keefe, and David H. Laidlaw. Painting and Visualization. In Visualization Handbook. Academic Press, June 2004.
- Kirby, R. M., Marmanis, H., and Laidlaw, D. H. Visualizing Multivalued Data from 2D Incompressible Flows Using Concepts from Painting. In Proceedings of the 10th IEEE Visualization 1999 Conference (VIS ’99) (October 25 – 28, 1999).
This too is by no means a complete list and any input regarding additions will be appreciated.
Ever since I’ve been involved with visualization, the two factions in the visualization community have fascinated and amused me. Scientific visualization deals with visualizing data that has inherent structure such as medical, hurricane, CFD data and so on. Information visualization deals with visualizing data that does not have an inherent structure such as financial stock market data, census data, genetic data and so on.
On attending many editions of the Annual IEEE Visualization and IEEE InfoVis (Information Visualization) conferences, I found that they are two entirely separate entities. The set of people organizing, attending and involved one conference is almost disjoint from the other set. There are some practitioners and researchers who keenly attend and participate in both versions but they are far and few in between.
The Visualization community isnt unaware of this strange but interesting divide.
They have had two panels, one in 2004 and another one in 2006 to discuss this divide and examine the pros and cons.
In 2003, the topic was “Information and scientific visualization: Separate but equal or happy together at last?” with leading experts from both fields pitching in.
- Theresa-Marie Rhyne, North Carolina State University
- Melanie Tory, Simon Fraser University
- Tamara Munzner, University of British Columbia
- Matt Ward, Worcester Polytechnic Institute
- Chris Johnson, University of Utah
- David H. Laidlaw, Brown University
At the IEEE Visualization 2006 conference held in Baltimore, MD there was another panel. This was organized by Dr. Helwig Hauser and was aptly called SciVis, InfoVis – Bridging the Community Divide?!
Top researchers from both factions presented their point of view. The panelists were
- Daniel Weiskopf, Simon Fraser University
- Kwan-Liu Ma, UC Davis
- Jarke J. van Wijk, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven
- Robert Kosara, UNC Charlotte and
- Helwig Hauser, VRVIS Research Center
I have taken courses in Visualization that have included both SciVis and InfoVis papers and believe that they both fall under the umbrella of “Visualization” anyway. Personally, I think that having two conferences improves the number of excellent papers that a researcher can read, but I still believe that we are all conducting research to provide insight to application domain users using innovative visualization techniques.
Comments and thoughts are welcome.
1. Researchers at IBM Research in Cambridge, MA have developed an excellent online tool to facilitate easy visualization of data. One can upload their data and experiment with different visualization techniques that are built into the system.
The site is called Many Eyes and here is the link to it http://services.alphaworks.ibm.com/manyeyes/app
2. One of my all time favorite visualization sites has been visualcomplexity.com. Its such an easy to use site with interesting visualizations from diverse fields ranging from biology, business networks, world wide web and so on. They also have a great feature that allows you to look at visualizations that are similar to one another from various fields. On clicking on the “Method” tab at the top, one can pick from one of many different techniques such as radial convergence, arc diagrams, trees and so on.
3. Dr. Ben Shneiderman’s “Information Visualization” class assembles a Vis4All
page that has links to interesting visualizations that were found by his students. Its always interesting to find something like treemaps being used successfully for another new application or some company using graph layouts to facilitate easy navigation for customers on their website.
We need many more such amazing endeavors to help other fields with the power of visualization.
I was looking for some interesting blogs on visualization and found very few.
Here is a list of some that I have found. I may have missed some, so please feel free to write a comment and add some more.
Prof. T.J. Jankun Kelly and his lab at Mississippi State have an excellent blog which is frequently updated. Click here to look at their blog.
Prof. Robert Kosara from University of North Carolina at Charlotte has another interesting and fairly regularly updated blog called Eager Eyes. He has a new series called “list of influences” where he requests famous visualization researchers to list a few of their influences. Influences could be in the form of books, papers and other media.
Infosthetics is a great blog that deals with a wide variety of applications of visualizations that are found on the web.
Matt Hurst at Microsoft’s Live Labs is one of the few people harnessing the power of visualization to deal with the new challenges presented by the data in social media such as blogs. He has an exciting blogwhere he catalogs the use of visualization in the field of social media (blogs, twitters, google trends and so on).
I was not able to find any more blogs that are focused on visualization. If any of you are able to find any blogs that I may have missed, please feel free to add some comments.
Through this blog I hope to present some work that I think is interesting and showcases the power of visualization.