Non-photorealistic rendering emerged out of the need for researchers to render a scene in styles other than photorealistic. Researchers have published their excellent work on topics as diverse as painterly rendering, charcoal rendering, pen-and-ink rendering, blueprint rendering and sketch drawing.
Painterly rendering as mentioned above is a type of non-photorealistic rendering. It deals with generating an image that mimics a painter’s attempt at generating a painting of a particular scene. This topic has received immense attention due to its “coolness factor” as well as complexity. The top image depicts a photograph which is used as input to the algorithm that generates the painterly rendering shown below the photograph. Image credits: Aaron Hertzmann, ‘Painterly Rendering with Curved Brush Strokes of Multiple Sizes’, Siggraph ’98.
Here is a small (definitely incomplete) list of papers that attempt to generate painterly rendered outputs based on various inputs (scenes, photographs and virtual environments).
- Painterly Rendering with Curved Brush Strokes of Multiple Sizes
A. Hertzmann. SIGGRAPH 98 Conference Proceedings. pp. 453-460. Orlando, Florida. July, 1998.
- Peter Litwinowicz, Processing images and video for an impressionist effect, Proceedings of the 24th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, p.407-414, August 1997
- Steve Strassmann, Hairy brushes, ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics, v.20 n.4, p.225-232, Aug. 1986
- Barbara J. Meier, Painterly rendering for animation, Proceedings of the 23rd annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, p.477-484, August 1996
- Cassidy J. Curtis , Sean E. Anderson , Joshua E. Seims , Kurt W. Fleischer , David H. Salesin, Computer-generated watercolor, Proceedings of the 24th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, p.421-430, August 1997
- Maria Shugrina , Margrit Betke , John Collomosse, Empathic painting: interactive stylization through observed emotional state, Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on Non-photorealistic animation and rendering, June 05-07, 2006, Annecy, France
- Paul Haeberli, Paint by numbers: abstract image representations, Proceedings of the 17th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, p.207-214, September 1990, Dallas, TX, USA
- James Hays , Irfan Essa, Image and video based painterly animation, Proceedings of the 3rd international symposium on Non-photorealistic animation and rendering, June 07-09, 2004, Annecy, France
- Aaron Hertzmann, Fast paint texture, Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium on Non-photorealistic animation and rendering, June 03-05, 2002, Annecy, France
- Doug DeCarlo , Anthony Santella, Stylization and abstraction of photographs, Proceedings of the 29th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, July 23-26, 2002, San Antonio, Texas
This list can go on forever, but you get the idea.
After that introduction of painterly rendering, I can now discuss the application of the rich medium of paintings in the field of visualization. In the field of visualization, attributes such as brush size, color, orientation, texture and so on can be used for visualizing all the multiple attributes that comprise a dataset.
Painterly visualization is an interesting approach to visualizing scientific data. Researchers not only end up producing aesthetically pleasing images but also generate visualizations that domain experts can better use to visualize and understand their data.
Prof. Chris Healey from NCSU has been one of the primary researchers using the painterly rendering paradigm to visualize weather and other multi-attribute datasets. Some other work has emerged from the labs of Prof. David Laidlaw at Brown, Prof. Victoria Interrante at UMN.
Here are some of their papers and some other related papers. The beautiful painterly visualizations generated not only make it enjoyable but the techniques and the applications sure make for extremely interesting reading.
- Tateosian, L. G., Healey, C. G., and Enns, J. T. “Engaging Viewers Through Nonphotorealistic Visualizations.” To appear in Fifth International Symposium on Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering (San Diego, California, 2007).
- Healey, C. G and Enns, J. T. “Perception and Painting: A Search for Effective, Engaging Visualizations.” IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications (Visualization Viewpoints) 22, 2, (2002), 10-15.
- P. Coleman Saunders, Victoria Interrante and Sean C. Garrick (2005) “Pointillist and Glyph-Based Visualization of Nanoparticles in Formation“,, Joint Eurographics/IEEE-VGTC Symposium on Visualization”, pp. 169-176.
- Healey, C. G., Enns, J. T., Tateosian, L. G., and Remple, M. “Perceptually-Based Brush Strokes for Nonphotorealistic Visualization.” ACM Transactions on Graphics 23, 1, (2004), 64-96.
- Michael Kirby, Daniel Keefe, and David H. Laidlaw. Painting and Visualization. In Visualization Handbook. Academic Press, June 2004.
- Kirby, R. M., Marmanis, H., and Laidlaw, D. H. Visualizing Multivalued Data from 2D Incompressible Flows Using Concepts from Painting. In Proceedings of the 10th IEEE Visualization 1999 Conference (VIS ’99) (October 25 – 28, 1999).
This too is by no means a complete list and any input regarding additions will be appreciated.